The BBC's presentation team will be based in a dedicated studio, or at various venues across the capital, with TV coverage running on BBC One, BBC Two and BBC Three.
Edwards, who was selected to lead the BBC's royal wedding coverage in April, will anchor the key Opening and Closing ceremonies.
BBC One breakfast time viewers will see a combination of Bill Turnbull, Hazel Irvine, Sian Williams and Chris Hollins, followed by live sport anchored by Mishal Husain from 9am to 11.30am.
Clare Balding will be the live presenter for swimming events, Jonathan Edwards will handle athletics and John Inverdale will oversee the rowing.
From 11.30am to 4pm, daytime presenters will include Matt Baker (also on site at gymnastics), Balding, and Jake Humphrey (also at track cycling) and Hazel Irvine.
Barker will take over from 4pm, before handing over the reins to Lineker for the evening show at 7pm and then Gabby Logan will cover the late night events from across the UK at 10.35pm.
In August, the BBC secured permission to extend BBC Three's broadcast hours and temporarily drop BBC Parliament on Freeview as part of its coverage of the London 2012 Olympics.
BBC Three, which usually broadcasts from 7pm to 7am, will shift to a full day schedule from July 19 to August 12 during the Olympic period.
Humphrey will be involved in BBC Three's coverage, anchoring the channel from 7pm to 11pm. Manish Bhasin, Rishi Persad and Sonali Shah will handle the rest of the day's schedule.
The BBC has committed to "bringing live sport from every venue where it's happening", meaning it will deliver 24 simultaneous live streams on the BBC Sport website, four times more than Beijing in 2008.
The corporation has also confirmed plans to offer certain coverage in Super Hi-Vision, a broadcast technology 16 times sharper than HD, on three big screens around the UK.