Unveiled at the company's I/O conference, the platform promises to provide a smoother, faster and more fluid experience than the current Android 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich.
The OS also includes a range of new features, such as offline voice typing, resizeable widgets on the home screen, and sophisticated voice search powered by the firm's Knowledge Graph.
Jelly Bean also features improved camera and Android Beam functionality, a refined interface, and the option to share notifications from social applications such as Foursquare without opening the app.
It also adds the Google Now service, a feature which scans users' search history, calendar and location data to bring them relevant information at the right time.
For instance, the service will bring users the weather as they wake up, inform them how long their journey to work will take based on traffic data, or serve up information on places of interest in the surrounding area.
Google also revealed plans to expand Google Play at I/O. Customers will now be able to purchase movies and TV shows, rather than just rent them, and magazines will also be available through the storefront.
Other new features include app encryption, and smart updates, which will mean that users no longer have to re-download an entire app every time an update for it is released.
Android 4.1 Jelly Bean will begin its roll out on Galaxy Nexus and Motorola Xoom devices in mid-July.
Watch an introductory video to Google Now below: