The patent, originally filed in 2006, outlines a transparent screen which would display computer-produced images using light-reflective "slats", reports BBC News.
The BBC suggested a variety of potential uses for the technology, such as vehicle windscreens that display information, or windows on business premises that display adverts.
Samsung is also thought to be working on a similar system, while the Korean firm recently unveiled its new 'bendable' tablet screen technology.
One type of see-through display technology is already being used, involving half-silvered mirrors angled on teleprompters to allow newsreaders to see text superimposed over a camera lens.
However, HP feels that its proposed system is different to others because it is more able to handle greyscale and full colour graphics.
HP has not yet put the technology into development, but it did release concept videos last year showing technical designs provided to the makers of the Hugh Jackman movie Real Steel.
This included the ThruScreen:
And the HP Flex system, involving a futuristic-looking see-through laptop computer: